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Diseases of the Nervous System in Children

Catagory: Neurodevelopmental disorders Author: Dr Rohit Kiran Cherukuri
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The human nervous system is sensitive to a wide range of situations and may be affected by traumas, structural abnormalities, blood flow disturbances, and other causes. It is a complex,  dynamic system that regulates and organises the body’s activities. Various disorders that might be chronic or brought on by outside factors fall under the broad category of nervous system diseases.  Children’s brains are far more sensitive than adults. 

From the time a baby is born until around age 26, the brain grows and develops. Genes and traumatic events can both have an effect on how a child’s brain develops. As a result, some children may have problems that can lead to neurological diseases. 

We will first learn about what the nervous system is and how it works before moving on to the subject of an Overview of Nervous System Disorders in Children. 

The nervous system is the human body’s most intricate and well-organized system. By means of nerves, it gathers data from the sensory organs, transmits it to the brain through the spinal cord, and then analyses it there. The nervous system controls most of the things that happen inside of us, such as muscle contraction, blood vessel dilation, learning about anatomy and physiology, and how our bodies react to the outside world. 

Two components make up the nervous system 

 
  1. The central nervous system, or CNS 
  2. The nerve system of the periphery 

The CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is made up of nerves and sensory cells. Neurons in Nervous Tissue Send Quick Signals. Neurotransmitters are the activators of the nervous system. The spinal cord communicates with the brain to transmit and receive messages and regulate actions. Views are connected to intricate memory, emotion, and cognition processes in the brain. 

Causes

 

Numerous things may lead to neurological illnesses. They may happen at any time, from before birth to later in life, to a kid. Idiopathic illnesses are ones in which the cause of the ailment is unclear. On  the other hand, the majority of illnesses fall into one of the following categories: 

  • Congenital (or present at birth) disorders include things like metabolic illnesses,  chromosomal or gene abnormalities, and congenital deformities. 
  • Pre/Perinatal: This category includes elements such as a difficult delivery, a low birth weight,  a lack of oxygen, infections, and exposure to contaminants in the environment. 

Traumatic brain injuries, infections, spinal cord injuries, cancers, and environmental toxins are all examples of illnesses that can happen after birth but before birth. 

The best way to handle problems with the nervous system is to get professional medical help. Even if you don’t need all of the team members at once, knowing who they are and how they can assist is still helpful. Different nervous system diseases have different symptoms depending on which part of the nervous system is affected and what is causing it. Long-term progression of nervous system illnesses may result in functional loss. Additionally, they have the ability to materialize out of thin air and pose a grave danger. 

Symptoms

 

To obtain effective treatment, your child’s ailment must be correctly diagnosed. Your baby may display a variety of symptoms because there are so many different neurological diseases. Medical specialists may see indicators right away after the baby is delivered, or you may not notice any more problems until a few days later. Additionally, it may not always be easy to distinguish the symptoms and indicators. For instance, seizures may be overt or subtle depending on the circumstance, such as in the case of a pseudotumor. The following is a list of the most common signs of nervous system disorders. Each child will, however, exhibit unique symptoms, and diverse illnesses will result in varying symptoms. Signs and symptoms include: 

Seizures

 

Spasms and seizures are uncontrollable jerking motions that might affect the whole body or just a  single muscle. Anywhere these symptoms appear, they are a significant warning sign of an epileptic disorder. You should never ignore these symptoms in your child because they could seriously harm your child’s nervous system as a whole. 

Muscle issues 

 

A checkup is necessary if your child walks or moves with a very rigid posture or if they seem to be unable to control their arms and legs, appearing floppy like a puppet. 

Coordination

 

This may be seen about the time a child starts to crawl or walk. Having a slow walk, stooping instead of standing straight up, and balancing on your toes are all signs of this illness. 

Focus

 

When it comes to attention issues, there are two situations. On the one hand, your child can find it challenging to focus for extended periods of time. Unlike children, who get better at paying attention as they get older, people with neurological issues do not. On the opposite end of the spectrum is the child who is so preoccupied with one thing that they miss the rest of their environment. 

Prevention is preferable to treatment

 

The greatest chance for a healthy life for your kid is early neurological illness screening. Early intervention may assist in lessening the challenges that come with a handicap, but many neurological illnesses in children may need treatment for the rest of their lives. Make an appointment with our pediatric neurologist at Complete Neurological Care right away if you see any anomalies in your baby’s development. 

Get adequate sleep, have a balanced diet, and engage in frequent exercise. Excessive pharmaceutical use may be the most frequent cause of nervous system diseases in elderly people.  Avoid colas and other caffeinated drinks since they might cause memory loss and confusion. Have 

your hearing and vision checked if you have trouble hearing or seeing. If you have poor hearing or vision, it is challenging for your brain to record information. 

Conclusion

 

The ongoing changes in the brain have an impact on a person’s personality, thoughts, and interactions with the outside world. The brain and neurological system of a youngster are essential to their survival in this scenario. Every disease has a treatment, and with the correct knowledge and persistence, it may be cured. This summary of pediatric nervous system problems will assist you and any nearby youngsters in spotting a condition and, who knows, maybe even save a child’s life.  Never refuse information in any form, and learn all you can about medicine since it might come in handy one day.